Archive

Archive for the ‘Environment’ Category

“Black Dust” in Tokyo? With 243,000 Bq/Kg of Radioactive Cesium


Freelance journalist Rei Shiva [Shiba] writing for Nikkan Spa, a daily tabloid in Japan (part; 5/15/2012):

福島県南相馬市内で発見された超強力な放射能を持つ謎の“黒い粉”が話題になったのは今年2月のこと。

It was this February when the super-radioactive and mysterious “black dust” found in Minami Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture was in the news.

1kgあたり108万ベクレル」というケタ違いの線量は衝撃的なものの、「南相馬での特殊な事例」として受け止められていた。ところが、その「黒い粉」は東京都内の至るところに存在しているという。

Although 1.08 million Bq/kg was shocking, it was considered to be specific only to Minami Soma. However, I’ve been told that “black dust” exists everywhere in Tokyo.

「放射線検知器を近づけてみると、明らかに反応があるので、汚染度が高いのかなとは思っていたのですが、まさ かここまでとは……」「黒い粉」を都内で発見した、市民団体「NO!放射能 江東こども守る会」の石川あや子代表は驚きを隠せない。「江戸川区のJR平井駅周辺で『黒い粉』らしきものを見つけ、採取したサンプルを神戸大学の山内知 也教授に検査してもらったところ、最大で1kgあたり24万3000Bqという数値が出たんです」。

“When I brought the radiation detector closer, it visibly responded. So I knew it might be highly contaminated, but didn’t know it was this contaminated…”, says Ayako Ishikawa incredulously. Ishikawa is the head of the citizens’ group “No! to Radiation, Protect Children in Koto”. [Koto-ku is one of the eastern Special Wards of Tokyo]. She says, “We found something that looked like “black dust” near the Hirai JR station in Edogawa-ku. We collected the sample and and asked Professor Tomoya Yamauchi of Kobe University to measure the radiation. The result was that it had the maximum 243,000 Bq/kg [of radioactive cesium].”

これは原子炉等規制法で定められた「安全基準(クリアランスレベル)」の約2430倍という、途方もない数値だ。

It is 2,430 times the clearance level [100 Bq/kg] specified by the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law.

「注意して見ると、『黒い粉』は都内の至るところにあります」と石川さんは言う。そんなにあちこちに高汚染の物質が転がっているのだろうか? という疑問を抱えつつ、「黒い粉」の調査に本誌記者も同行した。

“If you look carefully, “black dusts” are everywhere in Tokyo”, says Ishikawa. Such highly contaminated materials are everywhere? I decided to accompany her to look for “black dusts”.

まずは、JR平井駅から徒歩10分ほど。公営団地そばの運動場で「黒い粉」を発見した。フェンス近くで何か所にもわたって吹き溜まっていた「黒い粉」は、一見すると黒い土のように見える。近づいてよく見てみると、乾燥して干からびたコケやカビのようなものであるとわかる。

First, [to a location] about 10-minute walk from the JR Hirai Station. We found the “black dust” on the playground near the public housing. There were several drifts near the fence, and they looked like just “black soil”. When I took a closer look, they were revealed to be something like a dried moss or mold.

「この前来たときと微妙に場所が変わっていますね。風雨で移動したのかもしれません」と石川さん。ガイガーカ ウンターよりも信頼性の高い、国産のシンチレーション式放射線検知器を「黒い粉」に近づけてみた。すると数値が急上昇し、毎時2μSvを超えた。東京都の 平均的な空間線量(地上1m)の約20倍だ。山内教授は「一般的に携帯式の放射線検知器は周囲の放射線量の平均値を表示します。つまり、少量の物質に検知 器を向けて数値が急上昇するならば、その物質が極めて強い放射線を出している可能性があります」という。

Ishikawa said, “They are at slightly different locations. Rain and wind may have moved them.” We measured the radiation with the scintillation survey meter made by a domestic manufacturer because it is more reliable than a geiger counter. The number shot up quickly, and exceeded 2 microsieverts/hour. That is twenty times more than the average air radiation level (at 1 meter off the ground) in Tokyo. Professor Yamauchi says, “In general, a scintillation survey meter shows the average radiation level. If the number rises rapidly when the survey meter is directed toward a small amount of substance, it is possible that the substance is emitting extremely strong radiation.”

果たして、「黒い粉」の正体とは何なのか? そして、「黒い粉」の性質を利用した効率良い除染方法とは? 5月15日発売の週刊SPA!「首都圏を襲う[放射能の黒い粉]」では、「黒い粉」の元になる物質の怖さのみならず有用性もまた報じている。

What is this “black dust”? What is the efficient decontamination method using the unique properties of the “black dust”? Shukan Spa [weekly magazine] that will go on sale on May 15 has the article “Radioactive black dust striking the Tokyo Metropolitan area”, which will report on the danger of the substance that makes up the “black dust” as well as its usefulness.

I don’t see much point in comparing it to the clearance level of 100 Bq/kg which is applicable only to enclosed nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, it’s a whole new ballgame where the disaster debris exceeding that clearance level is being shipped to Kyushu to be burned in a regular incinerator and the soil samples in Kanto and Tohoku easily exceed that level in many locations.

Even though I have reported on the “black dusts” in Minami Soma City (most recently, here), I am not completely convinced that this “black” substance is any different from a drift of dirt that one often saw on the road surface or near the drains even before the Fukushima nuclear accident. Cyanobacteria that supposedly make up the “black dust” are ubiquitous.

Professor Yukio Hayakawa of Gunma University says if the top 1 millimeter of the soil is taken the radioactivity can be extremely high, though he seems to think that “black dust” is a very good indicator of urban contamination.

No matter what it is or how it came about, it is clearly highly radioactive, and it’d better be removed to avoid contact. No municipalities are doing that, as they should.

Just don’t go multiply that number (243,000 Bq/kg) by 65 and exclaim “Look, Tokyo is more contaminated than Chernobyl exclusion zone!” The multiplier of 65 only applies to soil samples that are taken from the surface to 5 centimeters deep, and whose specific gravity is about 1.3g/cm3. If Tokyo’s “black dust” has the same weight as Minami Soma’s “black dust”, it would be less than 0.5g/cm3.

Source: http://ex-skf.blogspot.ca/2012/05/black-dust-in-tokyo-with-243000-bqkg-of.html

Advertisements
Categories: Asia, Environment, Top Stories

The Nation: Lessons On Radiation From Hiroshima

August 29, 2011 Leave a comment

Greg Mitchell writes the Media Fix blog for TheNation.com.

The worst nuclear disaster to strike Japan since a single bomb fell over Nagasaki in 1945 occurred in the spring of 2011 at the Fukushima nuclear power plant following the epic tsunami. Earlier this week the New York Times reported (in a sadly submerged fashion, given the news from Libya) the disturbing news that a wide area around the Fukushima plant “could soon be declared uninhabitable, perhaps for decades, after a government survey found radioactive contamination that far exceeded safe levels….

“The formal announcement, expected from the government in coming days, would be the first official recognition that the March accident could force the long-term depopulation of communities near the plant, an eventuality that scientists and some officials have been warning about for months.”

Just two weeks ago, it was reported that radiation readings at the site had reached their highest points to date. The wide release of radiation, and fear of same, has forced the Japanese and others all over the world to reflect on what happened to the country in 1945, and the continuing (but usually submerged) threat of nuclear weapons and energy today.

In its main story marking the 66th anniversary of the atomic bombings, the Times highlighted the new activism of survivors of the bombing (the hibakusha) this year: campaigning against nuclear power, which has provided most of their country’s energy needs. No one in the world can relate to the fears of a wide populace terrified that they (and perhaps the unborn) may be tainted forever by exposure to airborne radiation.

My colleague Robert Jay Lifton wrote an op-ed for the New York Times titled “Fukushima and Hiroshima.” He pointed out: “One may ask how it is possible that Japan, after its experience with the atomic bombings, could allow itself to draw so heavily on the same nuclear technology for the manufacture of about a third of its energy. There was resistance, much of it from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. But there was also a pattern of denial, cover-up and cozy bureaucratic collusion between industry and government, the last especially notorious in Japan but by no means limited to that country.”

The Mainichi Shimbun sought out Sumiteru Taniguchi, now 82, and currently director of the Nagasaki A-Bomb Survivors Council, for comment. It noted that while he normally talks quietly and haltingly, “when the conversation turns to the ongoing crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant it is as if the floodgates open, and his tone suddenly turns harsh.” Taniguchi said: “Nuclear power and mankind cannot coexist. We survivors of the atomic bomb have said this all along. And yet, the use of nuclear power was camouflaged as ‘peaceful’ and continued to progress. You never know when there’s going to be a natural disaster. You can never say that there will never be a nuclear accident.”

As it happens, I have interviewed Taniguchi three times, in the United States and in Japan. He is perhaps the iconic symbol of the hibakusha today, thanks to footage of him taken after the bombing, showing him, months after the attack, still on a floor, spread-eagled, his entire back an open wound, flaming red. It was part of footage shot by a US film crew, and suppressed for decades, as I probe in my new book Atomic Cover-Up. (You can see some of the Taniguchi footage here.)

In April, 2011, five survivors’ organizations including Taniguchi’s Nagasaki group submitted a statement to the Japanese government declaring the collapse of the “safety myth” around nuclear power and demanding a change in the government’s energy policy to prevent creating any more hibakusha. And Hidankyo, where Taniguchi still served on the board, “has sent a statement to the government,” Mainichi Shimbun reported, “demanding that it distribute health record booklets — similar to the ones that are distributed to atomic bomb victims and can be used as proof of radiation exposure — to nuclear power plant workers and residents living close to them, and also provide periodic health examinations to those populations.”

Taniguchi pointed out that numerous A-bomb survivors over the decades had sought help from the government after falling ill or suffering cancer and other diseases, allegedly from radiation exposure, but had been “abandoned.” The Mainichi article closed with this question: Will the people who are suffering from invisible dangers in Fukushima be subjected to the same treatment?

Of course, the Fukushima disaster forced me to relive my own experiences in visiting the atomic cities, and my research into the American “cover-up” since. I was hardly alone. Writing in a New York Times op-ed after Fukushima, Nassrine Azimi, a senior adviser at a United Nations Institute, observed: “When it comes to nuclear issues — from atomic weapons to nuclear power — no two nations could be more irredeemably intertwined. After the atomic destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, despite dissenting voices of some of its own citizens, America drew mostly wrong conclusions as it plunged into nuclear expansion.”

She cited the book I wrote several years ago with Lifton, Hiroshima in America, for its painstaking account of “the relentless public relations campaign — unleashed by the Truman administration almost within hours of the Hiroshima bombing — that led to the Faustian bargain that blinded the Americans (and later the Japanese) to the insidious, long-term damage of radiation. Prominent journalists and media outlets of the time embraced, with enthusiasm, the ‘Dawn of the Atomic Age’ and America fell, in the authors’ words, into the ‘nuclear entrapment’ that is with us to this day.”

BACK to margotbworldnews.com

Fukushima – What They Aren’t Saying


By TC Burnett

5-3-11

“Cold shutdown” means the reactor cores – and the used fuel pools – decrease in temperature through 100 degrees C and continue to go down after a couple of days without additional cooling. If that doesn’t happen within 48 hours, it isn’t going to. E-V-E-R. The reactors are still ‘in service’ – which means the fuel is still reacting. It hasn’t happened at Fukushima and it never will.
Pouring water on those reactors may keep them from getting worse – but it doesn’t make them any better. And it creates the potential of another earthquake dumping millions of gallons of radioactive water all over the Pacific. They can’t continue to create highly radioactive water at the rate of 21 cubic meters per hour for 200 years but the minute they stop the fuel goes critical again. There is no way to stop it except burning it up all at once with a few nukes.
So this report, which makes the situation sound less and less serious as the days pass, isn’t telling the full story. Part of it simply isn’t true. They have been pumping that amount of water every day for months now but they reported 60,000 tonnes on April 11 and the total amount in the facility has officially remained at ‘a little less than 70,000 tonnes’ ever since. That cannot be unless they are dumping it in the ocean and lying about it.
Did I read that smoke is still coming from two of the reactors? Yep. So the problem still exists in a big way – it’s just been relegated to the back page.
Did I read that workers are spraying an ‘anti-scattering agent’ on the ground to control dust? Yep. For some reason I don’t immediately see the formula, so it has to be something simple. It’s probably just water-based acrylic polymer paint. Whatever it is, ‘anti-scattering agent’ is spiffy-sounding name that doesn’t mean anything but ‘dust control’.
I’m tempted to tell them that if they want to control dust, splashing ‘anti-scattering agent’ around with a fire hose might not be the best way to do it.

Hydrogen, Zirconium, Flashbulbs — and Nuclear Craziness


By Karl Grossman

The explosion at the Fukushima nuclear power plant is being described as caused by a “hydrogen build-up”.   The situation harks back to the “hydrogen bubble” that was feared would explode when the Three Mile Island plant in 1979 underwent a partial meltdown.

The hydrogen explosion problem at nuclear power plants involves a story as crazy as can be. As nuts as using nuclear fission to boil water to generate electricity is, the hydrogen problem and its cause cap the lunacy.

Read Full Article Here

BACK to margotbworldnews.com

Scientists Project Path of Radiation Plume


By WILLIAM J. BROAD
Published: March 16, 2011

A United Nations forecast of the possible movement of the radioactive plume coming from crippled Japanese reactors shows it churning across the Pacific, and touching the Aleutian Islands on Thursday before hitting Southern California late Friday.

The projection, by the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization, an arm of the United Nations in Vienna, gives no information about actual radiation levels but only shows how a radioactive plume would probably move and disperse.

Read Full Article Here

BACK to margotbworldnews.com

Categories: Environment, Health

Japan – Exploded Nuclear Plant Uses MOX Fuel – Not Uranium! What is that? Just 2 MILLION Times WORSE than Uranium or Chernobyl’s Meltdown!

March 14, 2011 2 comments

Sunday, March 13, 2011

UPDATE 3/13/11 11:18PM est – Video of EXPLOSION OF REACTOR 3 (Mox Fuel) that Just now happened on 3/14/11 at 11am  Japanese time (Mox Fuel) * watch this video and the one at the bottom of this article of Reactor #1 exploding on Saturday – to me this explosion is much bigger and more powerful than the other and there was a large flash at the beginning!

UPDATE – 3/14/11 12:12 AM – I was just listening to FOX news and they were talking to a Nuclear Expert as soon as he began saying Reactor 3 which had just exploded has different fuel and about to explain it, she totally cut him off and said there was no more time to talk to him.  Wow – they are trying to keep this information about MOX fuel from getting out!

CONFIRMED – REACTOR 3 (Mox Fuel Reactor) Exploded 10:50pm est- On LIVE right now – they are saying it is all still contained – possibly mass radiation from it though – (update) now they have changed that story and saying no radiation! Saying reactor is not damaged now and saying containment vessel still intact – same explosion as what happened with #1 – just the outer building!
http://www.ustream.tv/channel/nhk-world-tv

UPDATE -3/13/11 10:38PM EST – CNN JUST NOW SAID THERE WAS A BLAST AT REACTOR NUMBER 3  (the mox fuel reactor) – They are not sure of the whole situation and all they know is there has been a blast from it.

UPDATE 3/13/11 10PM est–  NUMBER 3 REACTOR – rods may have been damaged (this is the one with the MOX fuel).
The official also said that Tokyo Electric Power Co. (9501), the operator of the plant, has been able to release pressure in reactor No. 3 but that he’s concerned that its fuel rods may be damaged.

Another UPDATE – Just outFrom IAEA blog  about Reactor 3 (MOX fuel reactor) –

Unit 3 does not have off-site power supply nor backup diesel generators providing power to the plant. As the high pressure injection system and other attempts to cool the reactor core have failed, injection of water and boron into the reactor vessel has commenced. Water levels inside the reactor vessel increased steadily for a certain amount of time but readings indicating the water level inside the pressure vessel are no longer showing an increase. The reason behind this is unknown at this point in time. To relieve pressure, venting of the containment started on 13 March at 9:20AM local Japan time. Planning is underway to reduce the concentration of hydrogen inside the containment building. The containment building is intact at Unit 3.

Edit 3/14/11 9am est – I have a question.. they are saying there has not been radiation leaking and the containment vessels are intact with both reactors.  Then WHY Those in a helicopter were contaminated found when they landed on the Ronald Reagan? It is said the Ronald Reagan went through a radiation cloud also. Why isn’t MSM asking that question?  How can the reactors be intact yet people are getting contaminated from radiation? Can’t they ask the most basic questions?  Don’t they know people will on their own know someone is lying somewhere.  Lets see….. the Japanese about the reactors not melted down and no radiation leaking or the U.S. military and the soldiers who are now showing radiation contamination?  hhhmmm…. let me think about that.

another addition.. 9:26am est – I am flabbergasted CNN anchor says reactor exploded but NO Radiation Leaked!  How can they say that with a straight face?  When the U.S. military has been contaminated out in the ocean from radiation?  How can they easily lie like that, when it doesn’t make sense? They are saying steam released had small amounts of radiation but they are not saying one word about MOX fuel in that steam.

Original post commences about MOX fuel

I am so Astounded that the Japanese have as many Nuclear Power Plants that they have on the most seismic place in the world!  How they did not have 100 different back up plans is beyond me!  Why didn’t they have their generators 50 feet in the air in case of tsunamis?  I have thought of tons of questions regarding it all!

I am sadden by the tragedy in the first place, now the Man made tragedy is unfolding that is a million times worse than the natural tragedy!

We all know some of Japan’s nuclear power plants are in trouble and one exploded.

What is NOT Being released is the FUEL used in that plant!  I read about it and decided to research it!
I am SHOCKED at what I found!  This power plant meltdown can be 2 MILLION times Worse than Chernobyl!  This could make the whole country of Japan uninhabitable, besides being carried around the world!

This is truly Sickening!  In fact it really makes you wonder WHY they did not have 100 safety precautions in place!  How dare they use MOX in a nuclear power plant in a place that is known for the biggest quakes and tsunamis!  Besides Japan putting their plants right along side the ocean!

Read this whole post to understand the FULL ramifications of this Nuclear Plant Meltdown!  There is a Power Point Presentation the UN put together for MOX fuel I downloaded it – but there is not a link to go to for it.  I can’t insert power point presentations here either.

Here is what I have found:
FUKUSHIMA (Kyodo) Tokyo Electric Power Co. on Saturday loaded a nuclear reactor in Fukushima Prefecture with MOX, a controversial fuel made with reprocessed plutonium and uranium oxides, as it prepares to become the leading power utility’s first facility to go pluthermal.
Mixing it up: A MOX fuel rod on Saturday is loaded into a nuclear reactor in Fukushima Prefecture. KYODO PHOTO
The No. 3 reactor at Tepco’s Fukushima No. 1 plant will be the nation’s third pluthermal facility, but only the first to be refurbished since the plant was built 34 years ago.
Tokyo Electric plans to activate the reactor on Sept. 18 and let it start generating electricity on Sept. 23.  (2010)
***Recognize that plant name?   Yeah, it is the one that blew up****

http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf29.html
about Mox use in nuclear plants

http://archive.greenpeace.org/nuclear/transport/plutoshipsumm.pdf
Green peace information about Mox going to Japan and their very strong concerns about it

http://brc.gov/Reactor_Fuel_Cycle_Technology_SC/docs/Oct_12_Mtg/Kazimi_BRCFuelCycleEvaluation.pdf
A Tepco – Japanese professor about Mox/uranium

http://www.inmm.org/scriptcontent/PNNL/2010/Session%2015%20-%20Safeguards%20by%20Design%20II/Yapunich%20-%20Commercial%20Viability%20of%20MOX%20Fuel%20Transport%20in%20the%20US/Yapuncich%20paper.pdf
DOE – info on Mox and transportation of it

ADDED – 3/14/11 11:25am est – Nuclear Regulatory Fact Sheet on MOX fuel.
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/mox.html

and Oak Ridge Labs getting the fuel rods to study – due to abnormal growth in fuel assemblies with them.

http://blogs.knoxnews.com/munger/2008/11/mox_fuel_coming_to_ornl.html

http://www.ieer.org/ensec/no-3/main.html
The joint study cites a number of safety precautions necessary in the fabrication of MOX fuel relative to uranium fuel. MOX fuel emits higher gamma radiation and much higher neutron radiation than uranium fuel. Therefore, a separate fresh fuel storage facility designed for MOX only fuel containers for on-site use, and transport equipment for fresh fuel may be necessary. Dust resulting from MOX fabrication is also a concern for worker safety because of the dangers of inhaling plutonium (see article on health effects of plutonium).

MOX Spent Fuel

Plutonium is both used up and produced when MOX fuel is used in reactors. MOX spent fuel contains more plutonium than conventional spent fuel (that is, spent fuel resulting from loading an LWR with low enriched uranium fuel). Conventional spent fuel from LWRs typically contains about one percent plutonium when it is withdrawn from the reactor. The amount of residual plutonium in MOX spent fuel would depend on the initial plutonium loading (percent of plutonium in the fuel), the burn-up of the fuel, and the configuration in which the fuel is used.
For light water reactors using MOX fuel, the NAS calculates that residual plutonium in the spent fuel would range from 1.6 percent (for a 33% MOX core with 4% plutonium loading) to 4.9 percent (for a 100% MOX core with 6.8% plutonium loading). Ranges of 2.5 percent to 6.8 percent plutonium loading have been suggested. In the case of a CANDU reactor using a 100% MOX core, the percentage of plutonium in MOX spent fuel would be between 0.8 and 1.4 percent for MOX fuel containing 1.2 percent and 2.1 percent plutonium, respectively.12

Repository disposal of MOX spent fuel is complicated not only by the higher plutonium content in MOX, but by the larger quantities of transuranic elements in the spent fuel as well. This results in MOX spent fuel being thermally hotter than conventional spent fuel. The presence of greater amounts of transuranic radionuclides like americium-241 also cause persistent higher spent fuel temperatures, and cause the decay of thermal power level to be slower. MOX spent fuel use may therefore require that a host of issues be revisited, such as design of transportation and disposal canisters, and design of on-site spent fuel storage casks. For instance, the higher temperatures may cause storage problems at reactors that have limited storage room in their spent fuel pools. The higher temperature may also result in a need for more repository space, unless a repository is designed to take hotter fuel and withstand higher temperatures. Greater repository space would result in proportionally higher repository disposal costs. In addition, if the amount of residual gallium in MOX spent fuel is too high, it may result in deterioration of the spent fuel cladding, create new issues in evaluating the suitability of a repository, and pose greater risk of groundwater contamination. There are some uncertainties as to the concentration of gallium that might adversely affect spent fuel integrity. The differences between spent MOX fuel and spent uranium fuel pose many complications for reprocessing as well.

excerts from this linked article – this is much more serious than a normal nuclear plant meltdown!
#Danger of Losing Control of the Reactor Is Greater with MOX

Conventional LWRs are designed to decrease the reactivity when
the temperature rises. But when using Pu-239 as fuel, heating of
the core from an increase in reaction rate tends to increase the
reaction rate still further.  This is called the positive
temperature coefficient of reactivity, meaning there is a danger
of losing control of the reactor by accelerated chain reaction of
fissioning.(10)






MOX spent fuel contains more fission products than uranium spent
fuel.  The important factor in managing spent fuel is the heat
generation caused by the highly radioactive fission products.
Since spent MOX fuel contains much more fission products, the
heat generation from MOX spent fuel is twice as high as that of
spent uranium fuel after 10 years and three times as high after
100 years.(14)





Plutonium does not exist in the natural environment, and is only
produced in nuclear reactors.  It is known as one of the most
toxic elements.  It emits high energy alpha radiation, and has
harmful biological effects.
 
Alpha radiation has a very short range but very intense
ionization power.  If exposed on the surface of the skin, the
skin works as a shield and will prevent its penetration into the
body, but all of its ionizing power will be focused on the small
spot, causing burns and killing the skin tissue.  If inhaled
into the body, the alpha particle will go in through the
respiratory tract, and enter the lung.  Due to its long
half-life, it will stay in the body permanently, emitting alpha
radiation, and killing the surrounding tissues by strong
ionization.  If plutonium is taken into the body in soluble form
(e.g. plutonium nitrate) through food chain, it will enter the
blood stream, and into the bones, liver and genital organs where
it will be enriched.  Alpha radiation leads to reactions in the
cells of living things.  It can cause damage to the nucleus and
DNA of the cell, in effect causing genetic damage in descendants,
particularly if germ cells are affected.(15)  
#Dangers of Resuspension in the Environment 

In the event of a contamination of the environment with
plutonium, the whirling up and inhalation of plutonium particles,
known as resuspension, plays an important role.  If there is a
road traffic, building work or cleaning work at the plutonium
contaminated site, plutonium can enter the body through the
respiratory tract.  Generally, the more whirled up, the greater
the dose intake per quantity of plutonium on the ground.  If
there is fire, and plutonium becomes airborne into fine aerosol
particles, plutonium contamination of the environment will extend
to a far larger scale, landing on ground, contaminating a vast
wider area. Plutonium remains effective over very long periods
affecting the health of the people and the environment.(16)  





#Accident Scenario When Burning MOX

Accidents involving overheating and meltdown are possible in any
nuclear reactors.  In such accidents, not only would readily
volatile noble gases, like iodine and caesium be released
to the environment, but a small portion of the actinides,
including plutonium and neptunium would be released.  As the
activity of the actinides is substantially higher in the case of
MOX, the consequences of such severe accidents become more
serious.

When MOX fuels are used, the probability of having such serious
accidents or trouble would increase due to the high content of
plutonium in the fuel.  Even if an accident is not a serious one,
it could become serious since even a small portion of the
inventory of actinides released to the environment could cause
significant radiological consequences.





#Accidents at Fabrication Plants

Accidents at MOX fuel fabrication plants have occurred.  In June,
1991, the storage bunker of the MOX fuel fabrication plant in
Hanau, Germany was contaminated with MOX.  It occurred after the
rupture of a foil for container packaging in the course of an
in-plant transportation process.  Five workers were exposed to
plutonium.  This accident was the main reason the fabrication
plant at Hanau was shut down.(19)

In November, 1992, a rod was broken through a handling error and
MOX dust released during the mounting of MOX fuel rods to fuel
assemblies in the fuel fabrication facility adjoining the MOX
facility in Dessel, Belgium.(20)

In event of such accidents, if the International Commission on
Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations for general public
exposure were adhered to, only about 1 mg of plutonium may be
released from a MOX facility to the environment.  As a
comparison, in uranium fabrication facility, 2kg (2,000,000mg)of
uranium could be released in the same radiation exposure. A 1 mg
release of plutonium from a processing process can easily happen
from various smaller incidents.(21)

Must Watch video – Information about Plutonium in Nuclear Plants.

One other bit of information – KI pills do no good against MOX – it is only good for Uranium radiation. Plutonium is not affected by the pills!

EDIT TO ADD 3/13/11 8:54pmLink to information about Plutonium Contamination of Large Land Areas.
It stays in the soil 100% for one inch.  Even rain does not wash it away.   This link also give diagrams of distance to amount of contamination of that distance.

I will say in my own opinion ALL Nuclear Power plants anywhere near fault lines need to be SHUT DOWN IMMEDIATELY! That includes those that are right on the fault in California (what brilliant idiots decided on that place?) and all that are near the New Madrid Fault! Nuclear power plants ARE NOT Clean Energy! In fact they contaminate the Earth on a level that takes thousands of years to eradicate.

Posted by Sherrie Questioning All at 5:01 PM

BACK to margotbworldnews.com

Categories: Environment

Deadly tsunami slams into Japan, races across Pacific


Japan has been rocked by the largest earthquake in its history and smashed by a deadly tsunami, with the death toll rising by the hour.

A 30-foot tsunami has slammed into the eastern coast of Japan following one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded, causing destruction and damage of mammoth proportions across the country.

The 8.9-magnitude earthquake struck at a depth of just 10 kilometres, even shallower than the 6.7-magnitude earthquake that caused staggering destruction in the Haitian capital, Port-Au-Prince in 2010.

Across half the world, tsunami warnings have been issued. Almost every country with a coast on the Pacific Ocean has signalled a tsunami alert and hundreds of thousands of people living in coastal areas are being advised to seek higher ground.

Since the quake struck, Japan, along with nearby countries, has been struck by as many as 50 aftershocks, many reaching or exceeding 6-magnitude, leading Japanese authorities to issue further tsunami warnings.

The scale of destruction is extreme. The tsunami swept several miles inshore, swallowing everything in its path. Horrific images on Japanese television showed the wall of broiling water devouring bridges, roads, farms, houses and vehicles, churning into a broth of deadly debris.

According to initial reports, over 1,000 have already been confirmed killed. Authorities have announced 200 to 300 bodies were found in the north-eastern coastal city of Sendai, with a further 349 people missing. The death toll for the nation is likely to be much higher given the scale of the disaster.

Although Japan has experienced powerful earthquakes in the past, it has never endured an 8.9-magnitude one and experts have agreed the situation is unprecedented for the Japanese government, which remained on high alert Friday night.

A nuclear power plant just 170 kilometres outside the capital, Tokyo, was shutdown in the hours after the quake when its cooling system failed, causing the nuclear core to over-heat. No radiation leak has been reported, but thousands of residents living near the reactor have been ordered to evacuate. At the time of writing the plant’s core had still not begun to cool, despite an all-out shutdown.

At least two other nuclear plants reported problems in the aftermath of the quake, though the Japanese government has not released further details.

The national public transport system, world famous for its efficiency and time-keeping, has been brought to its knees, in Tokyo and wider northern Japan, all train services have been suspended, while major roads and highways have been either destroyed or closed due to damage.

The level of disruption and chaos is immense. Tokyo Airport has been shut down stranding tens of thousands of passengers,

Authorities in countries across the Pacific are bracing for similar damage as the tsunami races out across the world’s largest ocean.

BACK to margotbworldnews.com

Categories: Environment, World